Section 3.1 Quadratic Functions and Models


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1 Section 3.1 Quadratic Functions and Models DEFINITION: A quadratic function is a function f of the form fx) = ax 2 +bx+c where a,b, and c are real numbers and a 0. Graphing Quadratic Functions Using the Standard Form EXAMPLE: Let fx) = x 2 +10x 1. Express f in standard form. Identify the vertex. Solution: We have fx) = x 2 +10x 1 = x 2 +2x 5 1 = x 2 +2x = x+5) 2 26 = x 5)) ) The vertex is 5, 26). EXAMPLE: Let fx) = 2x 2 12x+23. a) Express f in standard form. b) Sketch the graph of f. 1
2 EXAMPLE: Let fx) = 2x 2 12x+23. a) Express f in standard form. b) Sketch the graph of f. Solution: a) We have fx) = 2x 2 12x+23 = 2x 2 6x)+23 = 2x 2 2x 3)+23 = 2x 2 2x )+23 = 2x 2 2x ) = 2x 3) 2 +5 The standard form is fx) = 2x 3) b) The standard form tells us that we get the graph of f by taking the parabola y = x 2, shifting it to the right 3 units, stretching it by a factor of 2, and moving it upward 5 units. The vertex of the parabola is at 3,5), and the parabola opens upward. We sketch the graph in the Figure below after noting that the yintercept is f0) = 23. 2
3 Maximum and Minimum Values of Quadratic Functions EXAMPLE: Consider the quadratic function fx) = 5x 2 30x+49. a) Express f in standard form. b) Sketch the graph of f. c) Find the minimum value of f. Solution: a) We have fx) = 5x 2 30x+49 = 5x 2 6x)+49 = 5x 2 2x 3)+49 = 5x 2 2x )+49 = 5x 2 2x ) = 5x 3) 2 +4 The standard form is fx) = 5x 3) b) c) 3
4 b) The graph is a parabola that has its vertex at 3,4) and opens upward, as sketched in the Figure below. c) Since the coefficient of x 2 is positive, f has a minimum value. The minimum value is f3) = 4. EXAMPLE: Consider the quadratic function fx) = 2x 2 8x+13. a) Express f in standard form. b) Sketch the graph of f. c) Find the minimum value of f. 4
5 EXAMPLE: Consider the quadratic function fx) = 2x 2 8x+13. a) Express f in standard form. b) Sketch the graph of f. c) Find the minimum value of f. Solution: a) We have fx) = 2x 2 8x+13 = 2x 2 4x)+13 = 2x 2 2x 2)+13 = 2x 2 2x )+13 = 2x 2 2x ) = 2x 2) 2 +5 The standard form is fx) = 2x 2) b) The graph is a parabola that has its vertex at 2,5) and opens upward, as sketched in the Figure below. c) Since the coefficient of x 2 is positive, f has a minimum value. The minimum value is f2) = 5. EXAMPLE: Consider the quadratic function fx) = x 2 +x+2. a) Express f in standard form. b) Sketch the graph of f. c) Find the maximum value of f. 5
6 EXAMPLE: Consider the quadratic function fx) = x 2 +x+2. a) Express f in standard form. b) Sketch the graph of f. c) Find the maximum value of f. Solution: a) We have fx) = x 2 +x+2 = x 2 x)+2 = x 2 2x 1 ) +2 2 = x 2 2x ) = x 2 2x ) = x 1 ) The standard form is fx) = x 1 ) b) From the standard form we see that the graph is a parabola that opens downward and has vertex 1, 9 2 4). As an aid to sketching the graph, we find the intercepts. The yintercept is f0) = 2. To find the xintercepts, we set fx) = 0 and factor the resulting equation. x 2 +x+2 = 0 x 2 x 2 = 0 x 2)x+1) = 0 Thus, the xintercepts are x = 2 and x = 1. The graph of f is sketched in the Figure below. c) Since the coefficient of x 2 is negative, f has a maximum value, which is f ) 1 2 =
7 Expressing a quadratic function in standard form helps us sketch its graph as well as find its maximum or minimum value. If we are interested only in finding the maximum or minimum value, then a formula is available for doing so. This formula is obtained by completing the square for the general quadratic function as follows: fx) = ax 2 +bx+c = ax 2 +a b a x+c = a x 2 + ba ) x +c = a x 2 +2x b ) +c 2a = a x 2 +2x b ) 2 ) ) 2 b b 2a + +c 2a 2a = a x 2 +2x b 2a + = a x+ b ) 2 a b2 2a 4a +c 2 = a x+ b ) 2 b2 2a 4a +c ) ) 2 ) 2 b b a +c 2a 2a EXAMPLE: Find the maximum or minimum value of each quadratic function. a) fx) = x 2 +4x b) gx) = 2x 2 +4x 5 7
8 EXAMPLE: Find the maximum or minimum value of each quadratic function. a) fx) = x 2 +4x Solution: b) gx) = 2x 2 +4x 5 a) This is a quadratic function with a = 1 and b = 4. Thus, the maximum or minimum value occurs at x = b 2a = = 2 Since a > 0, the function has the minimum value f 2) = 2) ) = 4 b) This is a quadratic function with a = 2 and b = 4. Thus, the maximum or minimum value occurs at x = b 2a = 4 2 2) = 1 Since a < 0, the function has the maximum value f1) = 21) 2 +41) 5 = 3 Modeling with Quadratic Functions EXAMPLE: Most cars get their best gas mileage when traveling at a relatively modest speed. The gas mileage M for a certain new car is modeled by the function Ms) = 1 28 s2 +3s 31, 15 s 70 where s is the speed in mi/h and M is measured in mi/gal. What is the car s best gas mileage, and at what speed is it attained? 8
9 EXAMPLE: Most cars get their best gas mileage when traveling at a relatively modest speed. The gas mileage M for a certain new car is modeled by the function Ms) = 1 28 s2 +3s 31, 15 s 70 where s is the speed in mi/h and M is measured in mi/gal. What is the car s best gas mileage, and at what speed is it attained? Solution: The function M is a quadratic function with a = 1 and b = 3. Thus, its maximum 28 value occurs when s = b 2a = 3 2 ) = The maximum is M42) = ) ) 31 = 32. So the car s best gas mileage is 32 mi/gal, when it is traveling at 42 mi/h. EXAMPLE: A gardener has 140 feet of fencing to fence in a rectangular vegetable garden. Find the dimensions of the largest area she can fence. 9
10 EXAMPLE: A gardener has 140 feet of fencing to fence in a rectangular vegetable garden. Find the dimensions of the largest area she can fence. Solution: We are asked to find the dimensions of the largest area the gardener can fence. So we let x = the width of garden Then we translate the information in the Figure above into the language of algebra: The model is the function A that gives the area of the garden for any width x. area = width length Ax) = x70 x) = 70x x 2 The area she can fence is modeled by the function Ax) = 70x x 2. We need to find the maximum value of this function. Since this is a quadratic function with a = 1 and b = 70, the maximum occurs at x = b 2a = ) = 35 So the maximum area that she can fence has width 35 ft and length = 35 ft. EXAMPLE:If1800ftoffencingisavailabletobuildfiveadjacentpens, asshowninthediagram below, express the total area of the pens as a function of x. What value of x will maximize the total area? What is the maximum area? 10
11 EXAMPLE:If1800ftoffencingisavailabletobuildfiveadjacentpens, asshowninthediagram below, express the total area of the pens as a function of x. What value of x will maximize the total area? What is the maximum area? Solution: Let x = width and y = length Since 6x+2y = 1800 it follows that 2y = x = y = 900 3x The model is the function A that gives the area for any width x. area = width length Ax) = x900 3x) = 900x 3x 2 It follows that the area will attain its maximum when x = b 2a = ) Using this we can find that the maximum area will be = 150 ft Ax) = = 67,500 ft EXAMPLE: A hockey team plays in an arena that has a seating capacity of 15,000 spectators. With the ticket price set at $14, average attendance at recent games has been A market survey indicates that for each dollar the ticket price is lowered, the average attendance increases by a) Find a function that models the revenue in terms of ticket price. b) What ticket price is so high that no one attends, and hence no revenue is generated? c) Find the price that maximizes revenue from ticket sales. 11
12 EXAMPLE: A hockey team plays in an arena that has a seating capacity of 15,000 spectators. With the ticket price set at $14, average attendance at recent games has been A market survey indicates that for each dollar the ticket price is lowered, the average attendance increases by a) Find a function that models the revenue in terms of ticket price. b) What ticket price is so high that no one attends, and hence no revenue is generated? c) Find the price that maximizes revenue from ticket sales. Solution: a) The model we want is a function that gives the revenue for any ticket price. We know that revenue = ticket price attendance There are two varying quantities: ticket price and attendance. Since the function we want depends on price, we let x = ticket price Next, we must express the attendance in terms of x. The model is the function R that gives the revenue for a given ticket price x. revenue = ticket price attendance Rx) = x23, x) Rx) = 23,500x 1000x 2 We use the model to answer the questions in parts b) and c). b) We want to find the ticket price x for which Rx) = 23,500x 1000x 2 = 0 We can solve this quadratic equation algebraically or graphically. From the graph in the Figure we see that Rx) = 0 when x = 0 or x = So, according to our model, the revenue would drop to zero if the ticket price is $23.50 or higher. Of course, revenue is also zero if the ticket price is zero!) c) Since Rx) = 23,500x 1000x 2 is a quadratic function with a = 1000 and b = 23,500, the maximum occurs at x = b 2a = 23, ) = So a ticket price of $11.75 yields the maximum revenue. At this price the revenue is R11.75) = 23, ) ) 2 = $138,
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